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Title: Promoting neurite outgrowth from spiral ganglion neuron explants using polypyrrole/BDNF-coated electrodes
Authors: Evans, Alison
Thompson, Brianna
Wallace, Gordon
Millard, Rodney
O'Leary, Stephen
Clark, Graeme
Shepherd, Robert
Richardson, Rachael
Keywords: Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor
Cochlear Implant
Electrical Stimulation
Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Spiral Ganglion Neuron
Issue Date: Oct-2009
Publisher: Wiley Periodicals
Citation: Evans AJ, Thompson BC, Wallace GG, Millard R, O’Leary SJ, Clark GM, Shepherd RK & Richardson RT (2008). Promoting neurite outgrowth from spiral ganglion neuron explants using polypyrrole/BDNF-coated electrodes. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 91 (1):241-50.
Abstract: Release of neurotrophin-3 (NT3) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) from hair cells in the cochlea is essential for the survival of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Loss of hair cells associated with a sensorineural hearing loss therefore results in degeneration of SGNs, potentially reducing the performance of a cochlear implant. Exogenous replacement of either or both neurotrophins protects SGNs from degeneration after deafness. We previously incorporated NT3 into the conducting polymer polypyrrole (Ppy) synthesized with para-toluene sulfonate (pTS) to investigate whether Ppy/pTS/NT3-coated cochlear implant electrodes could provide both neurotrophic support and electrical stimulation for SGNs. Enhanced and controlled release of NT3 was achieved when Ppy/pTS/NT3-coated electrodes were subjected to electrical stimulation. Here we describe the release dynamics and biological properties of Ppy/pTS with incorporated BDNF. Release studies demonstrated slow passive diffusion of BDNF from Ppy/pTS/BDNF, with electrical stimulation significantly enhancing BDNF release over seven days. A three-day SGN explant assay found neurite outgrowth from explants was 12.3-fold greater when polymers contained BDNF (p<0.001), although electrical stimulation did not increase neurite outgrowth further. The versatility of Ppy to store and release neurotrophins, conduct electrical charge and act as a substrate for nerve-electrode interactions is discussed for specialized applications such as cochlear implants.
URI: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jbm.a.32228/abstract;jsessionid=302E7DF521E9412DBAAF6F50513D1B56.f02t04?deniedAccessCustomisedMessage=&userIsAuthenticated=false
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